General Resources

Geography Textbook Online:

Free Videos online from “Earth Revealed”. A video instructional series on geology for college and high school classrooms and adult learners; 26 half-hour video programs and coordinated books. scroll down and click on “VoD”

Iowa State University Glossary of Geological Terms: Use to search for meanings of terms.

Geological Dictionary:

Definitions of terms:

Geologic Glossary



Land Degradation

How does land degradation happen:

Definition of terms:

Amazon Rainforest
World Wildlife Fund: Problems in the Amazon
Mongabay. 37,000 sq km of Amazon rainforest destroyed or damaged in 2008. Rhett A. Butler, March 19, 2009
Mongabay. Computer hackers are helping illegal loggers destroy the Amazon rainforest. December 12, 2008

Sub Saharan Africa
International Food Policy Research Institute: Linkages between land management, land degradation, and poverty in the Sub Saharan Africa. Abstract:
Full Text PDF:
United Nations Development Program. This paper is part of a series of recent research commissioned for the African Human Development Report. The authors include leading academics and practitioners from Africa and around the world, as well as UNDP researchers. The findings, interpretations and conclusions are strictly those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of UNDP or United Nations Member States.
Agriculture Rural Mozambique

Soil Conservation
Definition of terms:

Midwest US
Climate change impacts on soil erosion in Midwest United States with changes in crop management.
Global climate Change- Implicationsof Extreme Events for Soil Conservation Strategies and Crop Production in the Midwestern SUnitedStates
Chicago Tribune. Midwest Farmers Leading Efforts In Soil Conservation.

Forest rehabilitation and soil conservation in China.
The World Bank. China: Soil Conservation Benefits Farmers
Chinese Farmers Benefit from Harnessing Soil Erosion
Soil Conservation Farming System Practices on Sloping Land on the
South-Eastern Coast of China.
Are restoration efforts in China halting soil erosion?

Gravity and Erosion
What is gravity:

Causes of Mudslides:

Explains several terms:

Unsafe Ground: Landslides and other Mass Movements

Photos and story of a hike through a talus field:

Photos about half way down the page.

Slump Landslide

Recent landslide news

Landslides Hazards site at USGS

California Pacific Coast
FEMA. Coastal Erosion
The New York Times.Both Coasts Watch Closely as San Francisco Faces Erosion.
Coastal erosion problems highlighted in new study

Beach Erosion in Japan as a Structural Problem.
Potential impact of climate change at five Japanese beaches.
International Review of Emerging Technologies to
Manage Beach Erosion: Do They Really Work?
Costal Management in Japan.

Erosion of Mountains
How mountains change:

U. S. Dept. of the Interior. National park Service. Mountain Building — (Various locations)

U.S. Rocky Mountains

USGS. America's Volcanic Past: Rocky Mountains
National Park Service. Rocky Mountain: Geological Activity.
Natural History of the Rocky Mountains
National Park Services. Rocky Mountain National Park.
The Ancestral Rocky Mountains and their Eroded Remnants.

Erosion and Weathering Processes in the Himalaya.
Science Direct. Modern erosion rates in the High Himalayas of Nepal.
Himalayan erosion
Study of Erosion and Precipitation in the Himalayas Presents Surprising Findings, Scholars Say
The Eroding Himalayas.
Tectonic movement causes erosion in Himalayas: research

Parts of a River System
Stages in a rivers development:
Click on the left hand side “Parts of a River” and then “Channels” then “Tributaries” (you may have to log in to the website)


Definition of terms:

Colorado River
History of Colorado River Incision and Formation of the Grand Canyon.
Evolution of the Colorado River and its Tributaries including the Origin and Formation of the Grand Canyon Geologic History of the Grand Canyon.
Geography of the Colorado River
Encyclopedia Britannica. Colorado River.

Mississippi River
Mississippi Valley Traveler.
A Historic Resources Study of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area
Engineering Geology & Geophysics Branch. Index of Basins.
Geology and natural history of the Mississippi River Gorge

Channel (River) Erosion

Definition of terms:


Columbia River headwaters map

Mississippi River
National Park Service. Facts
The Atlantic. What We've Done to the Mississippi River: An Explainer.
Bank Erosion and Meander Migration of Red and Mississippi Rivers
Why does river straightening reduce floods?  Scroll down to "Channel Straightening" 

Nile River
Encyclopedia Britannica. Nile
Earth Facts. Nile River.
River Landforms.
The Nile- Evolution, Quaternary River Environments and Material Fluxes

Evolution of River Channels
How rivers and channels are formed:

Definition of terms:

Meanders and Ox-Bow lakes.

Braided Streams:

Colorado River
Paragraph description of evolution of the Colorado
Senior project on paleohydrology


Mississippi River;69/4/800

Stream Deposition
What is it and what forms or changes it:

Definition of Terms:,articleId-9513.html

Alluvial Fan

Natural Levee:

Artificial Levee:

Nile River
UT Dallas geology department


Okavango River
Shaping the Delta. Downloadable document:‎
United Nations Educational , Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Okavango Delta.

Wells and Springs
Formation of Wells and Springs:

Definition of terms:

Ogallala Aquifer

Silver Springs, Florida

Hot Springs and Geysers

Travertine formation: Photo of travertine formation.

Geysers and the Earth's Plumbing Systems:

Geysers, Fumaroles, and Hot Springs:

Mud pots:

Paint pots:

U. S. Dept. of the interior, National park Service: Hot Springs/Geothermal parks

Yellowstone National Park, WY
World Book Encyclopedia
National Park Service Explore Nature
Yellowstone Net
National Park Service
Yellowstone National Park

Hot Springs, AR or Hot Springs National Park
History/Interesting Facts
National Park Service Explore Nature
Hot Springs National Park Information
The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture
National Geographic.

Groundwater and Chemical Weathering
Cavern, Sinkholes and Karst topography:

The Virtual Cave:

Geology of Caves:

Stalactites and Stalagmites:

Columns and Sinkholes:
Karst Geology Site Bulletin

Sinkholes and Karst topography

Natural bridges:


Carlsbad Caverns, NM
World book Encyclopedia
National Parks
Earth Science in Our National Parks
National Park Service Explore Nature

Mammoth Cave, KY
National Park Service
National Park Service Explore Nature
National Park Service
Air Quality at Mommoth Cave, KY

Glacial Erosion

The erosion process:

Many terms: Geography/Physical Geography Textbook Online subject by Index

Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota / Mark Francek

RESGI Resources for Earth Sciences and Geography Instruction at Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan / Mark Francek

Black Hawk College, Moline, IL / Richard Harwood

Prof. Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Physical Geology Class Good overview of glaciers and associated vocabulary. Explains glacier movement, physical erosion activity, deposition activity, and causes of glacial ages.

National Snow and Ice Data Center

Several satellite maps showing the age of the ice in the Arctic Sea: on the right side bar.

Quick Facts:

Science Daily.
Glaciers In The Pyrenees Will Disappear In Less Than 50 Years, Study Finds.
Glaciers of the Pyrenees, Spain and France. PDF


BBC. Alpine glaciers 'protect mountain peaks from erosion'
Pre-glacial topography of the European Alps. PDF

Glacial Deposition
“Physical Geography” by Michael Ritter of University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point.
Why and How a glacier is formed:

Many terms:


On the website below click “Summary” on left side bar.


Sponsoring organization / person: RESGI Resources for Earth Sciences and Geography Instruction at Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan / Mark Francek

Sponsoring organization / person: Richard Harwood, Black Hawk College, Moline, IL.

Prof. Stephen A. Nelson, Tulane University, Physical Geology Class Good overview of glaciers and associated vocabulary. Explains glacier movement, physical erosion activity, deposition activity, and causes of glacial ages.

Quick Facts:

Canadian Rockies
Movement of King's Throne Rock Glacier, Mount Rae Area, Canadian
Rocky Mountains.  PDF
The Big Meltdown: Columbia Icefield, Canada.

Andes Mountains
The timing and magnitude of mountain glaciation in the tropical Andes   PDF
Glacial and Periglacial  Processes and Landforms. PDF

Effects of Wind Erosion
What is it:

Definition of terms
Geological Dictionary:

Mojave Desert
Effects of Climatic Variability and Land Use on American Drylands
Desert Winds: Monitoring Wind-Related Surface Processes in Arizona, New Mexico, and California. PDF

Gobi Desert
UCSB. How does wind erosion affect the plant and animal life in the Ventura/Santa Barbara area?
How does wind erosion affect the plant and animal life in the Ventura:Santa Barbara area?
Tulane University.

Wind Deposition
U. S. Dept. of the interior, national park Service Great Sand Dunes National monument and Park.
How does it happen:

Great exploration of the Great national Sand Dunes Monument Covers geology, hydrology, history and culture of the Dunes. The first site covers dune formation issues such as: parabolic, barchan and transverse.

Formation of dunes:

Where are dunes:
National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes: Click on left side bar for pictures, history, and nature and science.
Richard Harwood, Black Hawk College, Moline, IL: Covers sand dunes in all its shapes and types. Good vocabulary, no visuals. Need to search images databases for visuals.

Namibian Desert
Revision World: Features Produce by Wind Deposition
Quizlet: Wind erosion/deposition in the Namib Desert.
Dune patterns, Namibian Desert.
Presentation on Namibian Desert and Deserts in General.

Arabian Desert
World Book Encyclopedia
United Nations Environment Program. Global deserts outlook.
The Tectonic and Climatic Evolution of the Arabian Sea Region. Google books.
UAEInteract. The United Arab Emirates is a constitutional federation of seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ra's al-Khaimah and Fujairah.

Shoreline Erosion
US Geological Survey National Park Service Geological glossary:

Formation of Caves:

Sea Cliffs:

Wave cut terrace:

Wave built terrace:

Methods of Erosion Control:

U. S. G. S. Erosion of a Sea Stack Over 100 Years

Center for Coastal & Watershed Studies

Coasts in Crisis

Coral reefs heading for fishing and climate crisis

U. S. G. S.  Parks Shoreline: Where Parks meet the Sea

Has excellent vocabulary section:

Oregon Coast
City of Salem, Oregon Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan. June 2012.
Oregon Coastal Management Program
Physical Processes & Geologic Hazards On The Oregon Coast

Features of beaches:

Formation of beaches:

Where beaches are found:

Beach Spit:

Beach Tombolo and pictures:

Longshore current:

Outer Banks, North Carolina
North Carolina Coasts in Crisis: A Vision for the Future.
LearNC. Coastal erosion and the ban on hard structures NATURE'S TOLL ROAD.
Rebuilding N.C. 12 threatens the Outer Banks' existence
Past, Present and Future Inlets of the Outer Banks BarrIer Islands, North Carolina.

Cape Code, Maine
History and Geology. Interesting Facts.
Cape Cod Beaches Eroding At Alarming Rate
By Monica Brady-Myerov August 4, 2011
PennState. Textbook; Coasts and Cape Cod

Barrier Islands and Coral Reefs
Features of a barrier island:

Formation of barrier islands:

The following site is a good source for resources. Scroll down until you find “Resources”.

Where barrier islands are found:

Coral Atolls:

Fringing Reefs:

Barrier Reefs:

Tidal Flat:

Teach Ocean Science

Belize Barrier Reef, Belize
Belize Barrier Reef Reserve System
The Belize Barrier Reef, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is Endangered
The White-out Effect: Coral Bleaching
Why Do We Need To Save The Reef?
Belize's coral reef is gorgeous but threatened.

Great Barrier Reef, Australia
Australian Government. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Earth Facts. Great Barrier Reef Facts.
Earth Facts. Great Barrier Reef Facts.
Great Barrier Reef Foundation
Red Orbit. What’s Happening To The Great Barrier Reef?
'Death By a Thousand Cuts': Coal Boom Could Destroy Great Barrier Reef
Half of Great Barrier Reef Lost in Past 3 Decades